Resultado da pesquisa (3)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa wastewater

#1 - Clinical and toxicological findings in nitrate and nitrite poisoning in cattle in Northeastern Brazil

Abstract in English:

We report two outbreaks of nitrate and nitrite poisoning in Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The first, due to Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass), and the second, due to P. purpureum and Brachiaria spp. (brachiaria grass), both occurred during a prolonged drought. In the first outbreak, the irrigation of the pastures with wastewater and sewage contributed to nitrate accumulation. The second outbreak occurred in pastures cultivated in the border of a dam, that had been submerged for long time accumulating large amounts of organic matter in the soil. Other probably risk factors for nitrate accumulation included the use of chemical fertilizers and herbicides and burning of the vegetation. In the first outbreak, four calves out of a total of 42 cattle died, and in the second outbreak 49 out of 243 cattle, including adults, yearlings, and a 2-day-old calf died. The clinical signs included dyspnea, cyanosis, ataxia, and falls, leading to death. The presence of nitrates was detected in both outbreaks using the diphenylamine test. Quantitative tests were performed in the second outbreak using a portable nitrate meter, and high nitrate concentrations were found. The characteristic macroscopic findings and absence of microscopic lesions and response to treatment with methylene blue were key to the diagnosis of poisoning by nitrates and nitrites. We conclude that poisoning by nitrates and nitrites in ruminants in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil is frequent due to the cultivation of grasses in the border of dams that had been covered by water for long periods or in areas irrigated by wastewater and/or sewage. In addition, the use of a portable measuring device is an effective alternative for the quantification of nitrates in pastures.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Relatamos dois surtos de intoxicação por nitrato e nitrito na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. O primeiro por Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante), e o segundo por P. purpureum e Brachiaria spp. (capim braquiária); ambos ocorreram durante uma estiagem prolongada. No primeiro surto, a irrigação das pastagens com água poluída e esgoto contribuiu para o acúmulo de nitrato. O segundo surto ocorreu em pastagens cultivadas na borda de uma barragem, que há muito tempo ficavam submersas, acumulando grande quantidade de matéria orgânica no solo. Outros prováveis fatores de risco para o acúmulo de nitrato incluíram o uso de fertilizantes químicos e herbicidas e a queima da vegetação. No primeiro surto, quatro bezerros de um total de 42 bovinos morreram, e no segundo surto 49 de 243 bovinos, incluindo adultos, jovens de um ano e um bezerro de 2 dias de idade morreram. Os sinais clínicos incluíram dispneia, cianose, ataxia e quedas, levando à morte. A presença de nitratos foi detectada em ambos os surtos pelo teste de difenilamina. Testes quantitativos foram realizados no segundo surto usando um medidor portátil de nitrato, e altas concentrações de nitrato foram encontradas. Os achados macroscópicos característicos e a ausência de lesões microscópicas e a resposta ao tratamento com azul de metileno foram fundamentais para o diagnóstico de intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos. Concluímos que a intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em ruminantes na região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil é frequente devido ao cultivo de gramíneas nas bordas de barragens que estiveram cobertas por água por longos períodos ou em áreas irrigadas por água poluída e/ou esgoto. Além disso, o uso de medidor portátil é uma alternativa eficaz para a quantificação de nitratos em pastagens.


#2 - Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep, 37(11):1241-1246

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Silva V.C., Oliveira L.A., Lacerda M.S.C., Pimentel L.A., Santos W.S., Macêdo J.T.S.A., Riet-Correa F. & Pedroso P.M.O. 2017. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(11):1241-1246. Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Fundação Universidade de Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Via L4 Norte s/n, Brasília, DF 70910-970, Brazil. E-mail: pedrosovet@yahoo.com.br The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava) tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 µg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 µg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 µg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Silva V.C., Oliveira L.A., Lacerda M.S.C., Pimentel L.A., Santos W.S., Macêdo J.T.S.A., Riet-Correa F. & Pedroso P.M.O. 2017. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep. [Intoxicação experimental por manipueira em ovinos.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(11):1241-1246. Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Fundação Universidade de Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Via L4 Norte s/n, Brasília, DF 70910-970, Brazil. E-mail: pedrosovet@yahoo.com.br O processamento dos tubérculos de Manihot esculenta (mandioca) produzem diferentes subprodutos, incluindo a manipueira, líquido que escorre das raízes da mandioca depois de ter sido mecanicamente prensada. A intoxicação por cianeto após a ingestão de manipueira tem sido relatada em ruminantes e suínos no Nordeste do Brasil. Com o objetivo de estudar sua toxicidade, administrou-se manipueira por via oral a seis ovelhas em doses de 0,99, 0,75, 0,70, 0,63 e 0,5 mg de peso corporal de ácido cianídrico kg-1, correspondendo a 14,2, 10,6, 9,8, 8,89 e 7,1 mL de manipueira kg-1 de peso corporal. No segundo dia, as ovelhas receberam um volume de manipueira que correspondeu a 0,46, 0,34, 0,31, 0,28 e 0,23 mg de HCN kg-1. Uma ovelha usada como controle recebeu 9,9 mL de água kg-1 de peso corporal. Ovelhas que receberam doses de 0,75 a 0,99 mg kg-1 de HCN no primeiro dia exibiram sinais clínicos graves de intoxicação e as ovelhas que receberam 0,63 e 0,5 mg kg-1 exibiram sinais clínicos leves. Todas as ovelhas foram tratadas com sucesso com tiossulfato de sódio. No segundo dia, apenas as ovelhas que receberam 0,46 mg kg-1 e 0,34 mg kg-1 apresentaram sinais clínicos leves e se recuperaram espontaneamente. A concentração de HCN na manipueira foi de 71,69 ± 2,19 μg mL-1 imediatamente após a produção, 30,56 ± 2,45 μg mL-1 após 24 horas e 24,25 ± 1,28 μg mL-1 após 48 horas. O teste de papel picrosódico foi fortemente positivo 5 minutos após a produção; moderadamente positivo 24 horas após a produção e negativo 48 horas após a produção. Concluímos que a manipueira é altamente tóxica para ovinos se ingeridas imediatamente após a produção, mas rapidamente perdem toxicidade em 24-48 horas.


#3 - Enteropatógenos bacterianos em peixes criados em uma estação de reciclagem de nutrientes e no ecossistema relacionado, p.144-148

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Esposto E.M., Silva W.C.P., Reis C.M.F., Reis E.M.F., Ribeiro R.V., Rodrigues D.P. & Lázaro N.S. 2007. [Bacterial enteropathogens from fishes of a nutrient recycle system and its ecosystem.] Enteropatógenos bacterianos em peixes criados em uma estação de reciclagem de nutrientes e no ecossistema relacionado. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(4):144-148. Departamento de Bacteriologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCruz, Av. Brasil 4365, Pav. Rocha Lima, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-360, Brazil. E- mail: nslazaro@ioc.fiocruz.br The presence of bacterial enteropathogens from fishes of a nutrient recycle system from a Experimental Station in Petropolis, RJ, was evaluated in 72 samples from april 2000 to july 2001 Simultaneously was collected the mud used as organic manure and poultry beds localized next to the tanks. The isolation procedures included preenrichment in Peptone Water followed by enrichment with alcaline Peptone Water (pH 8.4-8.6), and streaked onto GSP Agar for the isolation of Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides. For enteropathogenic bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, 1ml samples were transferred for enrichment in Rappaport- Vassiladis broth and Kauffmann Tetrathionate Broth followed by streak onto Hektoen Enteric Agar and Salmonella-Shigella Agar. Simultaneously at each visit samples of water from fish and macrophyte tanks were collected for monitoring faecal coliforms (MPN) using A1 medium. Among the 116 isolates, Aeromonas spp. were the most frequent (67.2%) with 9 species (A. veronii, biogroup sobria, A. hidrophila, A. sobria, A. trota, A. eucrenophila, A. veronii biog. veronii, A. media, A. cavia and A. jandaei), followed by Edwardsiella tarda (16.4%), Plesiomonas shigelloides (12.9%) and Salmonella spp. (3.4%). The NMP of fecal coliforms showed higher values in the fish tanks (>1800/100ml).

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Esposto E.M., Silva W.C.P., Reis C.M.F., Reis E.M.F., Ribeiro R.V., Rodrigues D.P. & Lázaro N.S. 2007. [Bacterial enteropathogens from fishes of a nutrient recycle system and its ecosystem.] Enteropatógenos bacterianos em peixes criados em uma estação de reciclagem de nutrientes e no ecossistema relacionado. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(4):144-148. Departamento de Bacteriologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCruz, Av. Brasil 4365, Pav. Rocha Lima, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-360, Brazil. E- mail: nslazaro@ioc.fiocruz.br The presence of bacterial enteropathogens from fishes of a nutrient recycle system from a Experimental Station in Petropolis, RJ, was evaluated in 72 samples from april 2000 to july 2001 Simultaneously was collected the mud used as organic manure and poultry beds localized next to the tanks. The isolation procedures included preenrichment in Peptone Water followed by enrichment with alcaline Peptone Water (pH 8.4-8.6), and streaked onto GSP Agar for the isolation of Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides. For enteropathogenic bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, 1ml samples were transferred for enrichment in Rappaport- Vassiladis broth and Kauffmann Tetrathionate Broth followed by streak onto Hektoen Enteric Agar and Salmonella-Shigella Agar. Simultaneously at each visit samples of water from fish and macrophyte tanks were collected for monitoring faecal coliforms (MPN) using A1 medium. Among the 116 isolates, Aeromonas spp. were the most frequent (67.2%) with 9 species (A. veronii, biogroup sobria, A. hidrophila, A. sobria, A. trota, A. eucrenophila, A. veronii biog. veronii, A. media, A. cavia and A. jandaei), followed by Edwardsiella tarda (16.4%), Plesiomonas shigelloides (12.9%) and Salmonella spp. (3.4%). The NMP of fecal coliforms showed higher values in the fish tanks (>1800/100ml).


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV
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